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Q1. What is relational database?

Ans. Database that stores data in different tables that are linked with each other by means of different keys. The columns of the table hold attributes of the data, and each record usually has a value for each attribute, making it easy to establish the relationships among data points.

Q2. What is flat file database?

Ans. A flat-file database is a database stored in a file called a flat file. Records follow a uniform format, and there are no structures for indexing or recognizing relationships between records.

Q3. Define ERD?

Ans. Entity Relationship Diagram, also known as ERD, ER Diagram or ER model, is a type of structural diagram for use in database design. Basically ERD is the map of the database.

Q4. Define relation in databases?

Ans. A relation is a link between two entites. It is formed by foreign key. There are three types of relations.

  • One to One Relationship
  • One to Many Relationship
  • Many to Many Relationship

Q5. Define cardenality?

Ans. Cardenality defines whether one record of a table is mendatory for respective record in the other table? In database design, cardinality also can represent the relationships between tables. These relationships include one-to-one, one-to-many, or many-to-many.

Q6. Define query? How many queries are there.

Ans. A query is a request for data or information from a database table or combination of tables. There are four queries.

  • Update Data Query
  • Get Data Query
  • Insert Data Query
  • Delete Data Query

Q7. What is syntax of Update Query?

Ans. The UPDATE statement is used to modify the existing records in a table. Its syntax is as following.
UPDATE table_name SET column1 = value1, column2 = value2 WHERE condition;

Q8. What is syntax of Get/SELECT Query?

Ans. The SELECT statement is used to get the existing records in a table. Its syntax is as following.
SELECT * FROM table_name WHERE condition;

Q9. What is syntax of Insert Query?

Ans. The INSERT statement is used to insert records in a table. Its syntax is as following.
INSERT INTO table_name (column1, column2) VALUES (value1, value2);

Q10. What is syntax of Delete Query?

Ans. The DELETE statement is used to delete records in a table. Its syntax is as following.
DELETE FROM table_name WHERE condition;

Q11. Define Relational schema.

Ans. Relational schema refers to the meta-data that describes the structure of data within a certain domain. It is the blueprint of a database that outlines the way its structure organizes data into tables. OR Relational schema is the diagram view of the database.

Q12. Which software is use to create Usecase, DFD, Sequence and Activity Diagrams?

Ans. There are many software available on internet for making these diagrams, the most reliable software is Visual Paradigm. This is basically used for making XML diagrams.

Q13. Which software is use to create ER Diagram?

Ans. ERD or ER Diagram is usually made on, it is a web application that allows you to create ER Diagrams free of cost and also keeps them save for future.

Q14. Which software is use to create Relational Schema?

Ans. Relational Scheme is self generated by XAMPP server when we finish making database in it.

Q15. Which software is use to create Database?

Ans. After designing ERD, for web apps we use XAMPP or WAMPP Server, for desktop applications we use SQLite Explorer or SQL database Manager, depending on which database we are using for development.

Q16. In Which normal form is your ERD?

Ans. As the normalization process is done. All the tables of the ERD are in 3rd Normal Form.

Q17. What are the requirements for 3rd normal form?

Ans. A relation is in third normal form if it is in 2NF and no non key attribute is transitively dependent on the primary key. The attribute ID is the identification key. All attributes are single valued (1NF). The table is also in 2NF.

Q18. Did you perform testing?

Ans. Yes, I have perfomed complete testing after development phase.

Q19. Which testing technique you used?

Ans. I have used Integration testing and white box testing.

Q20. How many tables are there in your database?

Ans. (Count tables in your ERD, there are no fixed number of tables in each software).

Q21. Which database you used in your software?

Ans. For Web Applications (MySQL). For Android Applications (SQLite). For Desktop Applications (SQLite or SQL Server).

Q22. What is foreign key?

Ans. A foreign key is a column or group of columns in a relational database table that provides a link between data in two tables. It acts as a cross-reference between tables because it references the primary key of another table, thereby establishing a link between them.

Q23. What is primary key?

Ans. A primary key, also called a primary keyword, is a key in a relational database that is unique for each record.


Q1. Which Language you have used for developing front end?

Ans. I have used HTML , CSS and Bootstrap for front end development (For Web Projects Only).

Q2. Which language is used for backend development?

Ans. PHP (Hypertext Pre Processor) is used for backend development. It is a server side language.

Q3. Did you put validations on forms?

Ans. Yes, I have put validations on all forms so that the only validated data goes to database. Mainly i have used HTML and Javascript for validation purpose.

Q4. Is your Web Application responsive for all devices?

Ans. Yes, I have used bootstrap framework in developing front end so the site is fully responsive on all screen sizes.

Q5. What is difference between GET & POST methods?

Ans. In POST method Data is securely transferred to another page without displaying in URL. On the other hand GET method transferres data to another page using URL. POST method is most recommended when data security is needed.

Q6. Which data sending method is used for secure transmission of data?

Ans. POST method is used for secure data transmission.

Q7. Which tools are used for development?

Ans. For Web Projects: XAMPP Server, Sublime Text, Visual Paradigm, ERD Plus, Photoshop.
For PHP Desktop Apps: PHP Desktop Chrome, Sublime text, SQLite Data Explorer, Visual Paradigm, ERD Plus, Photoshop.
For Android Apps: Android Studio, SQLite Explorer, Adobe XD, Visual Paradigm.

Q8. Which SDLC model is used for development?

Ans. (Check Thesis of your Project for details of Model Used, as it is different for different projects.)

Q9. Which tag is not pair tag in HTML?

Ans. Tags that have only opening portion are known as not pair tags. Examples are Image Tag & Line Brake Tag.

Q10. What is difference between HTML and doctype?

Ans. HTML is web programming language. While doctype is a small line of code on the top of web page that tells the browser that which version of HTML is used in developing the page.


Q1. What is difference between Dynamic and Static website?

Ans. Static websites are ones that are fixed and display the same content for every user, usually written exclusively in HTML. A dynamic website, on the other hand, is one that can display different content and provide user interaction, by making use of advanced programming and databases in addition to HTML.

Q2. What is variable? How it is decleared?

Ans. A variable is a container that stores data in it during processing. It is decleared in different ways in different programming. In php it is just defined with $ Sign.

Q3. What is difference between session and cookies?

Ans. Cookies and Sessions are used to store information. Cookies are only stored on the client-side machine, while sessions get stored on the client as well as a server. A session creates a file in a temporary directory on the server where registered session variables and their values are stored.

Q4. What is function?

Ans. Functions are "self contained" modules of code that accomplish a specific task. Functions usually "take in" data, process it, and "return" a result. Once a function is written, it can be used over and over and over again. Functions can be "called" from the inside of other functions.

Q5. What is difference between Echo and Print?

Ans. Echo and Print both are used for same purpose i.e. to display something. The difference is very small, echo doesnt returns a value while print returns value as true or false.

Q6. What are comparison signs in programming?

Ans. In computer programming, comparison operators are used in conditional expressions to determine which block of code executes, thus controlling the program flow. Comparison operators compare two values in an expression. Examples of these operators are < , > , = , ==, <= , >= etc.


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